Education Theory

Constructivism and Social Constructivism in the Classroom

General Overview

In the constructivist classroom, the focus tends to shift from the teacher to the students. The classroom is no longer a place where the teacher (“expert”) pours knowledge into passive students, who wait like empty vessels to be filled. In the constructivist model, the students are urged to be actively involved in their own process of learning.

In the constructivist classroom, both teacher and students think of knowledge as a dynamic, ever-changing view of the world we live in and the ability to successfully stretch and explore that view – not as inert factoids to be memorized.

Key assumptions of this perspective include:

  1. What the student currently believes, whether correct or incorrect, is important.
  2. Despite having the same learning experience, each individual will base their learning on the understanding and meaning personal to them.
  3. Understanding or constructing a meaning is an active and continuous process..
  4. Learning may involve some conceptual changes.
  5. When students construct a new meaning, they may not believe it but may give it provisional acceptance or even rejection.
  6. Learning is an active, not a passive, process and depends on the students taking responsibility to learn.

The main activity in a constructivist classroom is solving problems. Students use inquiry methods to ask questions, investigate a topic, and use a variety of resources to find solutions and answers. As students explore the topic, they draw conclusions, and, as exploration continues, they revisit those conclusions. Exploration of questions leads to more questions.

There is a great deal of overlap between a constructivist and social constructivist classroom, with the exception of the greater emphasis placed on learning through social interaction, and the value placed on cultural background. For Vygotsky, culture gives the child the cognitive tools needed for development. Adults in the learner’s environment are conduits for the tools of the culture, which include language, cultural history, social context, and more recently, electronic forms of information access.

In social constructivist classrooms collaborative learning is a process of peer interaction that is mediated and structured by the teacher. Discussion can be promoted by the presentation of specific concepts, problems or scenarios, and is guided by means of effectively directed questions, the introduction and clarification of concepts and information, and references to previously learned material.

Role of the teacher

Constructivist teachers do not take the role of the “sage on the stage.” Instead, teachers act as a “guide on the side” providing students with opportunities to test the adequacy of their current understandings

Theory Implication for classroom
The educator should consider the knowledge and experiences students bring to class
Learners construct their knowledge through a process of active enquiry
‘Discovery’ is facilitated by providing the necessary resources
Knowledge is actively constructed & learning is presented as a process of active discovery
Provide assistance with assimilation of new and old knowledge
Learning programme should be sufficiently flexible to permit development along lines of student enquiry
Due to its interpretivist nature, each student will interpret information in different ways
Create situations where the students feel safe questioning and reflecting on their own processes
Present authentic tasks to contextualize learning through real-world, case-based learning environments
Support collaboration in constructing knowledge, not competition
Encourage development through Intersubjectivity
Providing Scaffolding at the right time and the right level
Provide opportunities for more expert and less expert participants to learn from each other

Role of the student

The expectation within a constructivist learning environment is that the students plays a more active role in, and accepts more responsibility for their own learning.

Theory Implication for classroom
The role of the student to actively participate in their own education
Students have to accommodate & assimilate new information with their current understanding
One important aspect of controlling their own learning process is reflecting on their experiences
Students begin their study with pre-conceived notions
Students are very reluctant to give up their established schema/idea & may reject new information that challenges prior knowledge
Students may not be aware of the reasons they hold such strong ideas/schemata
Learners need to use and test ideas, skills, and information through relevant activities
Students need to know how to learn or change their thinking/learning style
Because knowledge is so communally-based, learners deserve access to knowledge of different communities
For students to learn they need to receive different ‘lenses’ to see things in new ways.
Learners need guidance through the ZDP
In social constructivism tutors and peers play a vital role in learning

Social Constructivism in the classroom

Reciprocal Teaching

Where a teacher and 2 to 4 students form a collaborative group and take turns leading dialogues on a topic. Within the dialogues, group members apply four cognitive strategies:

  1. Questioning
  2. Summarizing
  3. Clarifying
  4. Predicting

This creates a ZPD in which students gradually assume more responsibility for the material, and through collaboratation, forge group expectations for high-level thinking, and acquire skills vital for learning and success in everyday life.

Cooperative Learning

More expert peers can also spur children’s development along as long as they adjust the help they provide to fit the less mature child’s ZPD.

Situated Learning

As early as 1929 concern was raised (Whitehead) that the way students learned in school resulted in a limited, ‘inert’ form of knowledge, useful only for passing examinations. More recently several theorists have argued that for knowledge to be active it should be learned:

  • In a meaningful context
  • Through active learning

The general term for this type of learning activity is situated learning. Situated learning proponents argue that knowledge cannot be taught in an abstract manner, and that to be useful, it must be situated in a relevant or “authentic” context (Maddux, Johnson, & Willis, 1997).

Anchored Instruction

The anchored instruction approach is an attempt to help students become more actively engaged in learning by situating or anchoring instruction around an interesting topic. The learning environments are designed to provoke the kinds of thoughtful engagement that helps students develop effective thinking skills and attitudes that contribute to effective problem solving and critical thinking.

Anchored instruction emphasizes the need to provide students with opportunities to think about and work on problems and emphasizes group or collaborative problem solving.

Other things you can do:

  • Encourage team working and collaboration
  • Promote discussion or debates
  • Set up study groups for peer learning
  • Allocate a small proportion of grades for peer assessment and train students in the process and criteria
  • Show students models of good practice in essay writing and project work
  • Be aware of your own role as a model of ‘the way things are done…’be explicit about your professional values and the ethical dimensions of your subject


Constructivists believe that assessment should be used as a tool to enhance both the student’s learning and the teacher’s understanding of student’s progress. It should not be used as an accountability tool that serves to stress or demoralise students. Types of assessment aligned to this epistemological position include reflective journals/portfolios, case studies, group-based projects, presentations (verbal or poster), debates, role playing etc.

Within social constructivism particularly there is greater scope for involving students in the entire process:

  1. Criteria
  2. Method
  3. Marking
  4. Feedback

Brooks and Brooks (1993) state that rather than saying “No” when a student does not give the exact answer being sought, the constructivist teacher attempts to understand the student’s current thinking about the topic. Through nonjudgmental questioning, the teacher leads the student to construct new understanding and acquire new skills.

Selected Bibliography

Driscoll, M. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction. Allyn & Bacon, Boston: MA

Hill, W.F. (2002) Learning: A survey of psychological interpretation (7th ed), Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA.

Jordan, A., Carlile, O., & Stack, A. (2008). Approaches to learning: A guide for teachers. McGraw-Hill, Open University Press: Berkshire.

Ormrod, J.E. (1995). Human Learning (2nd ed.). New Jersey, Prentice Hall.

Ryder, M (2009) Instructional Design Models. Downloaded from on 30 March 2009)

Selected Resources

List of learning theories and how they apply to practice:

List of models and good info on each:

Outline of learning theories:



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CNET Editors’ Rating

4.0 stars Excellent
Review Date: 10/01/13

Average User Rating

5.0 stars 8 user reviews

The good: The Samsung Galaxy Note 3 has a gorgeous and massive screen, screaming quad-core processor, and refined S Pen skills. It also has long battery life, makes clear calls, and takes great pictures.

The bad: The Note 3 is expensive, large, and its faux-leather styling is crafted from cheap plastic.

The bottom line: Though its plastic skin doesn’t do its high price justice, Samsung’s Galaxy Note 3 makes the most compelling case yet for a supersize phone.

The new $299.99 Galaxy Note 3 is a tour de force in juggernaut handset design. Not only is it big, bold, and blazingly fast, the imposing device has an incredibly sharp 5.7-inch display, and battery life to go the distance. More importantly, the Note 3 features a sleeker design than its predecessor, the Note 2, a streamlined S Pen interface, plus the same superb camera you’ll find on the Galaxy S4.

The third generation of the Note, however, is the most significant upgrade yet and the first Note device, thanks to a more thoughtful S Pen interface, that mainstream customers will actually want to buy. Frankly it has the power to school any flagship device on the market, and the only device since the old Palm Treos to get me seriously thinking about using a phone with a stylus.

Pricing and availability
Shipping now and hitting US carriers in force in October 2013, the Note 3 costs $299.99 on Verizon (in stores 10/10), AT&T (in stores 10/4) and Sprint (in stores 10/4). T-Mobile (available now) sells the device for a lower $199.99 up front, but you’re on the hook for 24 monthly payments of $21. U.S. Cellular have also said it expects to scoop up the Note 3 soon.

What’s new in the Note 3

Feather a Selection in Photoshop

Feather a Selection in Photoshop CS5

There is a lot you can do with a selection in Adobe Photoshop CS5. We have detailed ways to change the shape of the selection in the past, but you can actually modify your selection no matter what the shape is. One way to do this is by feathering a selection in Photoshop CS5. This will add an interesting effect to the outline of the selection shape, which will be transferred if you choose to cut the selection from your image, or if you choose to fill or stroke the selection. The size of the selection feathering is adjustable, and you can create some fun effects by using and becoming comfortable with this tool. Once you have learned how to feather a selection in Photoshop CS5, you should have an idea of what situations can benefit from its’ use.


Using the Feather Modifier on a Photoshop CS5 Selection


There are many different tools and utilities in Photoshop CS5, and even seasoned veterans of the program may encounter things that they have never touched before. Often times this can be due to their own needs differing from the results that can be produced with that tool, but other times it might simply be due to not knowing that the tool exists. Selection modifiers in Photoshop CS5 are very helpful in certain situations, so learning how to use them, and simply knowing that they are there, is a good way to improve your use of the program.


Step 1: Open the image to which you want to apply the feather modifier to a selection.

Step 2: Click the selection tool that you want to use from the toolbox at the left side of the window, then create a selection in your image. If your image contains multiple layers, be sure that you are making the selection on the correct layer.

Step 3: Click Select at the top of the window, click Modify, then click Feather. Note that you can also press Shift + F6 on your keyboard to open the Feather window.

how to feather a selection in photoshop cs5


Step 4: Choose the desired radius for your feathered selection, then click the OK button. Note that the shape of your selection will change slightly to account for the feather.

set feather radius


Step 5: Choose to fill the selection, or press Ctrl + X to remove the selection from the image. The result will allow you to see what the feather modifier can do to your image. The picture below gives an idea of what this tool is for. I have used the Fill tool to fill the selection with white, but the feather effect has adjusted how the effect is applied to the selection.

sample of feathering effect


You can then press Ctrl + Z on your keyboard to undo the action if you were just experimenting to see what feathering would do to your selection.

Making a Brochure Ad, Using Filters, Magnetic Lasso Tool

Making a Brochure Ad, Using Filters, Magnetic Lasso Tool

In this tutorial, we will be looking as how to make use of elements from an image, isolate it neatly, and use it in some other place, for this we need to know about the selection methods. In the following tutorial, for this purpose we will learn how to use the Magnetic Lasso Tool. Also in this tutorial we will see how powerful the filters can be in changing the feel of an image, along with the blend modes of layers.
Do note that this is just a method, once you get the understanding, you can use these same techniques and methods and apply them else where. You can either use my values, or try your own, remember experimentation is a great way of learning, so feel free to explore!

We will be making a small brochure ad for a flower shop. I came across a flower picture I took last year(also included with this tutorial). I need to keep the ad i am making simple yet attractive. Keeping this in mind I landed on this flower image, knowing that the colors can be enhanced and livened up with the filters and power of photoshop.

Here’s how our final result should look:

Open a new canvas of size 1024 X 268 pixels, by going to File> New.

I have opened a picture of a flower I took some time ago, i like the flower here, since it has clean sharp edges and will work great with the magnetic lasso tool.

Once your required photo is opened, drag and drop it on to your canvas you opened earlier. Simply use the Move Tool (V) and start dragging from the picture to the canvas.

Incase the picture does not fit on the canvas completely, Scale it up by hitting the keys CTRL + T, hold down shift and drag from one of the four corner handles that appear.

Click the Magnetic lasso tool, by default the Lasso tool is visible, hence you will have to right click on this button and then chose the magnetic lasso. you can also press L to activate it , and then you can press SHIFT+ L to cycle all the tools that are in that category.

In the illustration you can see the selection is being drawn by the magnetic lasso tool Do check the values that i have set (in the option tool bar above). I have set the Frequency at which the points will be drawn to 100. This gives good and precise control. If you be a little patience and keep your mouse movement in a good slow pace you will end up with good results. Also note at sharp edges, you might not get the anchor points automatically, so you might have to click there to force an anchor point, you might need to do this occasionally.

Keep drawing until you reach the point from where you started, once you reach there, you will see a small ‘o’ appear, double click and you should get a selection.

A good idea is too zoom in a bit say at 300% and the draw, this lets you see the pixels clearly, and use the spacebar to pan around, this needs a little practice, since while panning you can easily mess up your selection which you are making with your lasso tool

After ending the selection, this what my selection looks like.

You might get some artifacts where the selection might not be properly aligned with the edge, in this case need not worry, you will have to do some manual tweaking. You can select the Elliptical Marquee tool, and the by using ALT( to subtract) or SHIFT (to Add) to the selection, you can adjust these errors.

Isloate this flower from its background. Before I cut it, I would like to soften the edges up a bit.

In the menu Select > Feather or
ALT+CTRL+D, and then set the feather amount to 2. Click OK

After the feather is applied, inverse the selection so that the background is selected.

Select > Inverse or Shift+Ctrl+I


Press delete key , you can press it a couple of times incase you are not satisfied with the results, pressing it a couple of times, will keep deleting the edges with the feather amount you have applied.

Select the move tool (V) and align the flower with the top right corner of the canvas.

Duplicate the Flower_1 layer , right click on the layer and select duplicate.

Change blend mode of this layer to Color.

On this new duplicated layer, we will apply a Rough Pastels filter, ( you can apply other also from this category) . I am trying to achieve a little Painted soft effect, to break the originality of the flower looking real.

I have used these setting for the Rough pastels, you can play with the settings to suit your taste.


Next Apply a Film Grain filter, this will introduce some nice grains.

The settings used.

Next I need a drop shadow, one way is to use the Layer Styles to apply the drop shadow, but i need some manual control.

Dupllicate the original layer once again. Right click on the layer to Duplicate.

Move it at the bottom of all the layers, but above the background layer. Double click on the empty space towards the right of the layer( see the hand point icon in the illustration)

Make the Color Overlay black and click OK


Move the black flower a little down, so that the edges are visible.

Apply blur to this black flower.
Filter> Blur > Guassian Blur. Set the value according your requrements. It can vary with the size of your object/image

After applying the Guassian Blur.

The shadow we have created is just too soft, to roughen it up I will apply a Film Grain filter, do this by going to the
Filter > Artistic > Film Grain…

Next set the opacity to 74% or so,
this will give some transparency in the shadow.

Select the Text Tool, and type the text. Set a font that matches the overall theme and feel of the composition.

Open up the Layer Style, right click on the Flower Text layer, and select Blending options, to bring up the Layer Style options. Click in drop shadow, to see its properties, and then set the values as I have done, or according to your result as you want them to be.

I have added some more text to complete the name of the shop, “The Flower Shop”. I wanted the same layer style as I gave to FLOWER layer, simply right click on the FLOWER text layer, and select Copy Layer Style.

Click on the layer you want to paste the style, in this case the text was “The”, right click on this layer and select Paste Layer Style.

The Final Image.

Multimedia Technology

Multimedia Technology

  • The Development Process and Multimedia Applications

The Software Development Process and Multimedia Applications

  • Analysis: The main purpose of this stage is to be absolutely clear about what the multimedia project is supposed to do.
  • The Development Process and Multimedia Applications
  • Design: Producing a detailed plan which defines what the different parts of the project are and how they are linked together.
  • The Development Process and Multimedia Applications

The Software Development Process and Multimedia Applications

  • Implementation: This is the point at which the multimedia authoring, or web-page authoring, package is used to turn the design into a working project.
  • The Development Process and Multimedia Applications

The Software Development Process and

Multimedia Applications

  • Testing: A series of practical tests are carried out to check that the multimedia project functions properly.
  • Documentation: User Guide and Technical Guide.
  • The Development Process and Multimedia Applications

The Software Development Process and

Multimedia Applications

  • Evaluation: Checks that the finished application meets the user’s requirements.  Includes an assessment of the HCI design.
  • Maintenance: Fixing bugs and adapting the design to suit client needs and the demands of new technology.
  • Methodologies used in creation of multimedia applications
  • Text editor: Creating simple web pages using HTML.
  • WYSIWIG editors: Previewing applications under development to check that what you see is what you get.
  • Multimedia authoring packages, e.g. Mediator Pro.
  • Presentation software, e.g. PowerPoint.
  • Methodologies used to view multimedia applications
  • Displaying multimedia applications in a browser.
  • Displaying multimedia applications using a file player or viewer.
  • Methodologies used to view multimedia applications
  • Bit-mapped Graphic Data
  • Capturing still images using a digital camera
  • Using a CCD to capture light coming in through a lens
  • CCD charged coupled device: uses sensors to capture light
  • Capturing images using a scanner: also uses CCD
  • Bit-mapped Graphic Data
  • Storing graphics as a bit map: each pixel in the image is represented by a binary number.
  • Uncompressed bit-map format: a file which holds a binary number for each pixel in an image.
  • Large file size: main limitation of bit-map format.
  • Need for compression: to relieve demands on storage and transmission times.
  • Bit-mapped Graphic Data

Compression using GIF format

  • Lossless compression: GIF format compresses graphic data without losing any information about the image.  It compresses by encoding repeated patterns of data.
  • Limited number of colours: limited to 28, 256 colours.
  • Transparency: colours set as transparent let the background colours and patterns show through.
  • Used for storing cartoons, and line drawings.
  • Bit-mapped Graphic Data


  • Uses lossy compression: parts of the graphic are cut out, e.g. shades of colour.  At low rates of compression this is not noticeable.
  • Bit-mapped Graphic Data


  • JPEG format suitable for storing photographs

and paintings.

  • Bit-mapped Graphic Data

Trading quality for file size

  • Resolution: increasing resolution increases the number of pixels, can improve the quality of a graphic but increases the file size.
  • Colour depth: increasing colour depth increases the number of colours or shades of grey, can improve the quality of a graphic but increases the file size.
  • Lossy compression: reduces file size and, providing the rate of compression is not too high, does not affect the quality of the graphic.
  • Bit-mapped Graphic Data

Simple bit-map editing and creation software

Painting programs

Fill tool: a feature for pouring colour into a graphic.

Paintbrush tool:  for more precise application of colour.

  • Bit-mapped Graphic Data

Main features of image editing programs

  • Decrease resolution
  • Alter colour depth
  • Crop
  • Alter brightness and contrast
  • Insert graphic
  • Re-size.
  • Bit-mapped Graphic Data

Hardware for displaying 2D graphics

  • CRT monitor: bulky, heavy, run on mains power, cost less than equivalent TFT screens.
  • LCD and TFT screens: flat, light, need less power, more expensive than CRT.
  • Bit-mapped Graphic Data

Hardware for displaying graphic data

  • Need for graphics cards to store and process graphic data,  relieving the main processor of the task.
  • Digitised Sound Data

Hardware for capturing sound

  • Microphone
  • Sound cards: to sample, store and process audio data.
  • Digitised Sound Data

Uncompressed sound data

  • RAW: Uncompressed samples of sound waves

0101010101010101 1111111101010101

0011001100101011 1100101000110001

  • RIFF: Resource Interchange File Format
  • WAV: Microsoft’s format for sound files, part of RIFF
  • Digitised Sound Data
  • Lossy compression: reduces file sizes by cutting out some of the data.
  • MP3: uses lossy compression without noticeable loss of sound quality.
  • Digitised Sound Data

Balancing file size and sound quality

  • Sampling depth: increased sound depth = greater range of values = better sound quality and greater file size.
  • Sampling frequency:  The higher the sampling frequency, the better the sound quality, the greater the file size.
  • Sound time: affects file size but not quality.
  • Digitised Sound Data

Simple sound editing software

  • Reducing sample frequency, e.g. from 44.1 KHz to 22.05 KHz, reduces file size and audio quality.
  • Reducing sample depth, e.g. from 16 bits to 8 bits per sample, reduces file size and audio quality.
  • Digitised Sound Data

Editing sound file features:





  • Digitised Sound Data

Sound cards and playback:

Sound cards needed to change the digital audio data into analogue signals to control output from speakers.

  • Video Data

Hardware for capturing images

  • Digital video camera
  • Web cam
  • Video Data

Storing video data

  • Uncompressed format
  • Uncompressed video data = Large file sizes
  • 1 second of uncompressed wide-screen video can take up 53 Megabytes of storage
  • AVI: Audio Visual Interleave, an uncompressed format.
  • Video Data

Compressing video data

  • MPEG-2

Lossy compression: cuts out unnecessary parts of a video clip

  • Video Data

Compressing video data

  • Video Data

Video quality and file size

  • Colour depth: increasing colour depth improves quality and file sizes.
  • Resolution: increasing resolution improves quality and increases file sizes.
  • Frame rate: measured in frames per second, fps.  30fps is the rate for a video clip.  Increasing frame rate increases file size.  Lower frame rates reduce file size but make video clip ‘jerky’.
  • Video Data

Video quality and file size

  • Video time: increasing or reducing the time of a video is the obvious way to affect the file size.  Quality of the display of the clip is not affected.
  • Lossy compression:  Using MP3 compression reduces file sizes without affecting quality.
  • Video Data

Video editing software features and applications used with single video clips

  • Cropping: cutting unwanted data from the beginning and end of a clip.
  • Add effects, titles, sound tracks.
  • The need for graphics cards to process and output video data.
  • Vector Graphics Data

Basic features of vector graphics

  • They are scalable: resolution independent.
  • In a vector graphic individual objects can be edited.
  • Graphics can be assembled by placing objects in layers.
  • Vector Graphics Data

Common attributes of vector graphic objects




  • Vector Graphics Data

Common attributes of vector graphic objects





  • Vector Graphics Data

Attributes of a 3D image






  • Vector Graphics Data

Standard formats for vector graphics

Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) format

Scalable: resolution independent

Vector: represents objects by defining a series of attributes

  • Vector Graphics Data

Standard formats for vector graphics

Virtual Reality Markup Language

A standard language used to model and animate geometric shapes

Used to define 3D environments for the WWW.

  • Synthesised Sound Data

Musical Instrument Digital Interface: MIDI

Common attributes of notes stored as MIDI data:

–        Instrument: defines which instrument is playing

–        Pitch: defines the height of the note

–        Volume: determines the amplitude

–        Duration: determines the length of the note.

  • Synthesised Sound Data

Common attributes of notes stored as MIDI data

Duration: determines the length of the note.

Tempo: the speed at which a piece of music is played.

  • Implications: Multimedia Technologies

Converging contemporary technologies

  • Smartphone: merging technologies of a mobile phone and a laptop.
  • Pocket PC: merging technologies of a laptop, mobile phone and desktop

operating system and application


  • Implications of Multimedia Technologies

Contemporary technologies

  • Digital television: an interactive multimedia device which, because of the digital nature of its signals, is easily integrated into your digital computer and home networks.
  • Implications of Multimedia Technologies

Contemporary technologies

Virtual reality

The ultimate multimedia experience where the user is immersed in the world of the computer and can journey through, and interact with, a computer generated 3-dimensional multimedia world.

  • Implications of Multimedia Technologies
  • Immersive VR
  • Output :Using speakers, stereo screens, headsets
  • Input: sensors in gloves, headsets and suits


The K to 12 Basic Education Program

I. The K to 12 Program

The K to 12 Program covers kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of junior high school, and two years of senior high school [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.

The adoption of the program is in response to the need to improve the competitiveness of our country’s graduates as the ten-year basic education cycle is seen as inadequate for work and higher education. In fact, overseas Filipino workers are not automatically recognized as professionals[1] in other countries that view the ten-year education program as insufficient. The Philippines is the only country in Asia and is one of only three countries[2] in the world with a ten-year basic education cycle. 

A.   Salient Features

1. Universal Kindergarten Education. Kindergarten has now been integrated into the basic education system to ensure that all grade 1 students are ready for academic learning.[3] Universal kindergarten started in SY 2011–2012 with a budget of P2.3 billion and was made mandatory starting SY 2012–2013 through the signing of Republic Act No. 10157 entitled “An Act Institutionalizing the Kindergarten Education into the Basic Education System and Appropriating Funds Therefor” on January 20, 2012.[4]

In SY 2012–2013, an estimated 2.3 million five-year-old children will enter kindergarten, of which 1.7 million (74 percent) will be served by public schools.[5]

2. Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education. The mother tongue will be the medium of instruction from kindergarten to grade 3. This includes the following: Tagalog, Kapampangan, Pangasinense, Iloko, Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Waray, Tausug, Maguindanaoan, Maranao, and Chabacano. Medium of instruction will be English and Filipino starting grade 4.[6]

3. Core Academic Areas.[7] The core academic areas include Math; Filipino; English; Araling Panlipunan; Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao; and Music, Arts, Physical Education, and Health (MAPEH). These are based on the College Readiness Standardsof the Commission on Higher Education and are equivalent to the courses offered under the General Education Curriculum of Higher Education Institutions.

Science will be taught in grade 3, but its concepts will be integrated in other subjects like Health (under MAPEH), Math, and Languages in grades 1 and 2. Edukasyong Pangtahanan at Pangkabuhayan will be taught starting in grade 4. Technology and Livelihood Education and technical–vocational specializations, consistent with the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority training regulations, will start in grade 7.

4. Specializations.The additional two years (grades 11 and 12) or SHS will allow students to choose among academic, technical–vocational, or sports and arts tracks depending on their interest, the community needs, and the results of their skills assessment. The SHS will allow mastery of core competencies for lifelong learning and preparedness for work, higher education, middle-level skills development, or entrepreneurship.[8]

B.   Implementation and Transition Management

Program implementation will be in phases starting this June for SY 2012–2013. Grade 1 entrants in SY 2012–2013 will be the first batch to fully undergo the program, and incoming first-year high school students (or grade 7) in SY 2012–2013 will be the first to undergo the junior high school curriculum.[9] To prepare teachers for the new curriculum, a nationwide summer training program for about 140,000 grades 1 and 7 public school teachers will be held in May. The Department of Education (DepEd) is also working with various private school associations to cover teachers in private schools.[10] To facilitate the transition from the existing ten-year basic education to 12 years, the DepEd will also implement the SHS Readiness Assessment[11] and K to 12 Modeling.[12]

C.   Social Benefits of the Program[13]

The perceived benefits of the program include: i) placing the Philippine education system at par with international standards, following the Washington Accord and the Bologna Accord; and ii) contributing to the development of a better educated society capable of pursuing productive employment, entrepreneurship, or higher education disciplines.

D.   Ensuring Sustainability of the Program[14]

Enhancing the basic education curriculum and increasing the number of years for basic educationwas adopted as a Common Legislative Agenda during the February 28, 2011 Legislative–Executive Development Advisory Council (LEDAC) meeting. The administration-supported bills that aim to increase the number of years for basic education are Senate Bill 2713 (Recto), House Bill (HB) 4219 (Belmonte), and HB 4199 (Escudero). These bills are pending at the Committee Level.

E. Curriculum

Click on the following links to access the curriculum guides (PDF files):


Science: Grades 3 to 1o

Physical Education: Grades 1 to 10

Music and Arts: Grades 1 to 10

Araling Panlipunan: Grades 1 to 7

Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao: Unang  Baitang at Ika-10 Baitang

Health: Grades 1 to 10

Mathematics: Grades 1 to 10

II. Government Interventions to Address Basic Education Input Gaps.[15]

The DepEd budget was increased by 15 percent from P207 billion in 2011 to P238.8 billion in 2012, which is being utilized to address the basic education input gaps, among others.

A.   Classrooms

As of January 27, 2012, the following are the government’s accomplishments on classroom construction:

2010 GAA

2011 GAA


Classroom construction



Classroom construction




(2,218 complete; 165 ongoing)




(4,447 complete; 2,642 ongoing)


B.   Teachers

As of February 29, 2012, 94.86 percent of the 10,000 CY 2011 new teaching positions[16] approved by the Department of Budget and Management has been filled. To fast-track the construction of classrooms, the Public-Private Partnership for School Infrastructure Project will be implemented from July 2012 to July 2013 with a project cost of P9.8 billion. A total of 9,332 classrooms will be constructed in 2,262 elementary and secondary schools in three pre-identified regions (I, III, and IV-A) with the highest classroom shortages. 

C.   Toilets

Between 2010 and 2011, 978 of the targeted 1,396 toilets have been repaired.

D.   Textbooks

With the CY 2010 and 2011 procurement, the DepEd will be able to achieve a 1:1 student to textbook ratio in SY 2012–2013. By SY 2012–2013, the DepEd will have a zero backlog on textbooks.

E.   Seats

Between 2010 and 2011, 1,301,506 of the targeted 1,461,963 school seats have been procured.

III.  Frequently Asked Questions on the following:

A. K to 12 Concerns

When will the K to 12 program be implemented?

  • Universal kindergarten started in SY 2011–2012.
  • The new curriculum for grade 1 and grade 7 (high school year 1) will be implemented in SY 2012–2013 and will progress in the succeeding school years.
  • Grade 11 (HS year 5) will be introduced in SY 2016–2017 and grade 12 (HS year 6) in SY 2017–2018.
  • The first batch of students to go through K to 12 will graduate in March 2018.

Where will the additional two years be added?

  • The two years will be added after the four-year high school program. This will be called senior high school.

Why are we implementing 12 years of basic education and not 11 years?

  • A 12-year program is found to be the adequate period for learning under basic education and is a requirement for recognition of professionals abroad (i.e., the Bologna and Washington Accords).
  • Other countries like Singapore have 11 years of compulsory education, but have 12 to 14 years of preuniversity education depending on the track.

Will this address the dropout problem?

  • The decongested curriculum will allow mastery of competencies and enable students to better cope with the lessons. This should partly address those who drop out because they cannot cope with schoolwork.
  • The curriculum will be learner-centered, enriched, and responsive to local needs. It will also allow students to choose electives/specializations that suit their interest. This should partly address those who drop out because of lack of personal interest in the curriculum offered.
  • DepEd will also continue to offer programs such as home schooling for elementary students and the dropout reduction program for high schools. These programs address the learning needs of marginalized students and learners at risk of dropping out.

Why is the K to 12 program better than the current program?

  • K to 12 offers a more balanced approach to learning that will enable children to acquire and master lifelong learning skills (as against a congested curriculum) for the 21st century.
  • The current program crams a 12-year curriculum into ten years, making it difficult for students to master the competencies.
  • It will help in freeing parents of the burden of having to spend for college just to make their children employable.
  • A student who completes K to 12 will be equipped with skills, competencies, and recognized certificates equivalent to a two-year college degree.

What would be the assurance that K to 12 graduates will be employed?

  • DepEd has entered into an agreement with business organizations and local and foreign chambers of commerce and industries that graduates of K to 12 will be considered for employment.
  • There will be a matching of competency requirements and standards so that 12-year basic education graduates will have the necessary skills needed by the labor market.

How will K to 12 help in ensuring employment for our graduates?

  • The K to 12 basic education curriculum will be sufficient to prepare students for work.
  • The curriculum will enable students to acquire Certificates of Competency (COCs) and National Certifications (NCs). This will be in accordance to TESDA training regulations. This will allow graduates to have middle-level skills and will offer them better opportunities to be gainfully employed or become entrepreneurs.
  • There will be a school–industry partnership for technical–vocational tracks to allow students to gain work experience while studying and offer the opportunity to be absorbed by the companies.

How will the K to 12 program help working students (college level)?

  • DepEd is in collaboration with CHED to provide more opportunities for working students to attend classes.
  • DepEd is working with the Department of Labor and Employment to ensure that jobs will be available to K to 12 graduates and that consideration will be given to working students.

How will the K to 12 program help students intending to pursue higher education?

  • The K to 12 basic education curriculum will be in accordance with the College Readiness Standards from CHED, which sets the skills and competencies needed of K to 12 graduates who wish to pursue higher education.
  • CHED will download its general education subjects to K to 12, ensuring mastery of core competencies for K to 12 graduates. This may lead to a reduction in the number of years of college courses, resulting to a decrease in educational expenses of households.

B. Transition Management and Private Schools

What will happen to colleges and universities during the two-year transition period (SY 2016–2017 and SY 2017–2018)?

  • DepEd is in the process of formulating a transition management plan, which involves the active participation of officials of educational institutions and organizations/associations of colleges and universities (public and private) for this two-year gap. The arrangements may include using private school facilities and teachers for senior high school.
  • DepEd is working closely with private educational institutions to address these transition management issues.

Will senior high schools be implemented in existing high schools or will new schools be built?

  • Existing schools will be used for the additional two-year program. DepEd is likewise in discussions with CHED, TESDA, and private schools to use their existing facilities during the transition period and beyond.

Is K to 12 required for private schools as well? Will the same implementation timeline apply to private schools?

  • Since private schools follow the DepEd curriculum, they will also be implementing the 12-year basic education program, but the implementation plan will differ. This will be discussed with the representatives of the private schools.
  • Private schools are active participants in developing the K to 12 Program.
  • Note that a number of private schools offer at least 12 years of basic education: two years of kindergarten, six or seven years of elementary, and four years of high school.

How will the college and technical–vocational courses be adjusted due to the K to 12 curriculum? Will adjustments be made in time for the first graduates of K to 12?

  • TESDA will download some of its basic technical competencies, and CHED will transfer the general education subjects to basic education.
  • CHED will be releasing its updated College Readiness Standards, which will be the basis for the competencies in grades 11 and 12 (HS years 5 and 6).
  • These activities will be completed before SY 2016–2017.

What is the role of the (a) barangays and (b) NGOs in K to 12?

  • They will help in information dissemination about the program; and
  • Take part in the K to 12 consultations to provide input on the implementation of the program.

C. Curriculum

What will happen to the curriculum? What subjects will be added and removed?

  • There will be a continuum from kinder to grade 12 (HS year 6), and to technical and higher education.
  • The current curriculum will be decongested to allow mastery of learning.
  • In grades 11 and 12 (HS years 5 and 6), core subjects like Math, Science, and English will be strengthened. Specializations in students’ areas of interest will also be offered.
  • Right now, a technical working group has formulated the new curriculum framework, standards, and competencies for K to 12. Experts from CHED, TESDA, and other stakeholders are part of this working group. After this, the changes in terms of subjects added, removed, and enhanced will be clearer.

What specializations will be offered in senior high school?

  • The specializations to be offered include academics, middle-level skills development, sports and arts, and entrepreneurship. In general, specializations will either be college preparatory, immediate work/career readiness, or a combination of both.
  • Specializations will also be guided by local needs and conditions. For example, schools serving farming or fishing communities will offer agriculture- or fishery-related specializations. Schools located in manufacturing zones will have technical courses relevant to the sector, and so will schools in the vicinity of the business process outsourcing (BPO) industry. Science high schools will continue to provide higher degrees of science competencies, as well as the arts.

Will students choose specializations or will this be determined by assessment?

  • Students will undergo several assessments to determine their interests and strengths. These will include an aptitude test, a career assessment exam, and an occupational interest inventory for high schools, and should help students decide on their specialization.

For senior high school, what will happen if majority of our students want to specialize in agriculture and only one is interested to take math or academics? How will this be accommodated?

  • This is an extreme situation.
  • The areas of specialization will be offered according to the resources available in a locality and the needs of students.

What will happen to special schools such as science high schools, high schools for the arts, trade schools, etc.?

  • These schools will remain special schools with enriched curriculum for grades 7 to 12 (HS years 1 to 6).

What will happen to multigrade teaching?

  • Multigrade teaching will continue using the K to 12 curriculum.

ALS age requirement is only 16 years old for the HS equivalency test. Will this change to 18? Students might want to turn to ALS if they can save two years of formal school education costs.

  • The ALS is based on the existing ten-year basic education curriculum. When the new 12-year curriculum will be in place, ALS will likewise be revised.

D. Kindergarten

Is kindergarten a prerequisite for entering grade 1?

  • Yes. Republic Act No. 1057, or the Kindergarten Education Act, institutionalizes kindergarten as part of the basic education system and is compulsory for admission to grade 1.

Is there an overlap between the day care program of the LGUs and DepEd kindergarten?

  • There is no overlap. Day care centers of the LGUs take care of children aged 4 and below, whereas the DepEd kindergarten program is for five-year-old children.

Should schools now prepare permanent records for kindergarten students?

  • Yes. Although the assessment on readiness skills of students in kindergarten is not academically driven, a good measure of the child’s ability to cope with formal schooling is needed for future learning interventions.

Who is in charge of kindergarten teacher compensation? The LGU o DepEd?

  • DepEd is the main agency that employs and pays kindergarten teachers.
  • There are LGUs that help in the kindergarten program and provide honoraria for kindergarten teachers.

When will the Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) be implemented?

  • The MTB-MLE program will be implemented nationwide this coming June, in SY 2012–2013.
  • Nine hundred twenty-one schools, including those for children of indigenous people, have piloted the MTB-MLE. The implementation of MTB-MLE will benefit from the experience of these 921 schools.
  • Twelve mother tongue languages shall be offered as a learning area and utilized as a language of instruction starting SY 2012–2013. These are Tagalog, Kapampangan, Pangasinense, Iloko, Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Waray, Tausug, Maguindanaoan, Maranao, and Chabacano.

Which mother tongue will be used in multicultural areas?

  • The lingua franca in the area shall be used as the medium of instruction.
  • The principle of MTB-MLE is to use the language that learners are most comfortable and familiar with.

E. Teachers

Will teachers be burdened by additional teaching load due to the K to 12 Program?

  • There will be no additional workload due to the K to 12 Program. The Magna Carta for Public School Teachers provides that teachers should only teach up to six hours a day.
  • The decongested K to 12 curriculum will allow teachers to master the contents and competencies that they will develop among the students, and will enable them to focus on their areas of expertise.

Will teacher salary increase as a result of the K to 12 Program?

  • The K to 12 Program will not result in teacher salary increase because there will be no additional teaching load or additional teaching hours.
  • Salary increases for other reasons, such as the Salary Standardization Law, inflation, and promotion, may apply.

How will teachers be prepared for the K to 12 Program?

  • Teachers will be given sufficient in-service training to implement this program. The preservice training for aspiring teachers will also be modified to conform to the requirements of the program.
  • Training of national trainers for grades 1 to 7 will be on April 23–29, 2012.
  • Training of grades 1 and 7 teachers will be conducted at the regional and division levels for the whole month of May 2012.

Who will be the teachers for senior high school? What will be their qualifications?

  • Additional special teachers will be hired and existing teachers will be trained to teach core academic subjects and electives that will be offered in grades 11 and 12 (HS years 5 and 6).
  • DepEd is exploring the possibility of utilizing existing technical and higher education teachers to teach grades 11 and 12 (HS year 5 and 6), especially during the transition period.
  • Teacher education institutions will also adjust its preservice programs to align it with the needs of the education sector.

F. Budget

How close is DepEd in addressing the resource gaps (i.e., classroom, teachers)?

  • By this SY, 2012–2013, we will close two of the five resource gaps: seats and textbooks.
  • We have targeted to close the other resource gaps in the next few years.
  • Aside from increasing the budget of DepEd, we are also enjoying support from local governments, private partners, and donor agencies.

DepEd lacks resources to address its current input shortages. With K to 12 and its added resource needs, how will this be addressed?

  • One scheme is to front-load all needed capital investments, take a grant or loan from government and private banks based on annual budget, and pay the amortization yearly.
  • We also have the support of local government units and private partners in terms of infrastructure.
      • Private partners can donate through our Adopt-a-School program that provides them a 150 percent tax rebate for their contribution.
      • Individuals and institutions can take part in the TEN Moves! Campaign to build 10,000 classrooms by donating P10 per day for ten months.
      • LGUs can follow the front-loading scheme using their Special Education Fund as collateral and the allocation as amortization.
      • For teacher items, LGUs also help by hiring qualified teachers for our public schools and paying honoraria for them.
  • We have enough time to provide the additional classrooms, teachers, and instructional materials since they will be needed beginning in SY 2016–2017.

How about the additional cost to parents?

  • Grades 11 and 12 (HS years 5 and 6) will be offered for free in public schools.
  • K to 12 graduates will have higher earning potential as they will be more competent and skilled.
  • As a result in the K to 12 Program, CHED is exploring the possibility of decreasing the number of years of certain courses in college.
  • K to 12 graduates will have national certification from TESDA, which will enable them to have higher employment opportunities.

How much will the K to 12 Program cost the government?

  • The House-approved budget for 2012 is P238.8 billion, including P2.4 billion for kinder. For 2016, the introduction of grade 11 (HS year 5) has a preliminary estimated cost of P38 billion, assuming all costs are borne by the government (Medium-Term Spending Plan for Basic Education, 2011).
  • DepEd is targeting to involve other stakeholders to generate additional financial resources.

Won’t this be another avenue for corruption? How can you ensure that funds will be released and used properly?

  • DepEd fully supports the Aquino administration’s drive against corruption.
  • We will regularly package and disseminate information on agency budgets, bidding and procurement documents, and SALNs of senior government officials, to ensure transparency and accountability.
  • It is also in our best interest to ensure that funds and resources are not lost to corruption.

G. ARMM Concerns

Will the K to 12 Program be applicable in ARMM? What will happen to the Madrasah curriculum in ARMM?

The K to 12 curriculum will be flexible enough to accommodate local conditions and culture in Mindanao. The Madrasah curriculum is a component of the K to 12 Program.

What is the policy of DepEd to reduce the occurrence of teacher kidnapping in ARMM?

  • We will be organizing an Education Summit for ARMM to discuss the various concerns in Mindanao, including teacher kidnapping.
  • Our initial discussions with ARMM explore assigning Muslim teachers to ARMM schools.

Given the situation in the conflict areas, is it possible to make the non-eligible natives (Muslim) full-pledged teachers?

  • This will be discussed with the Civil Service Commission and the Professional Regulation Commission.
This page was last updated on June 5, 2012. All information came from the Department of Education.


[1]        The Washington Accord prescribes 12 years of basic education as an entry to recognition of engineering professionals. The Bologna Accord requires 12 years of education for university admission and practice of profession in European countries. (Source: Dir. Anna  Cristina M. Ganzon, Office of the Secretary, DepEd, Vetted Brief for the K to 12 Launch, April 20, 2012.)

[2]        From the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization’s 151 member countries, Djibouti and Angola are the other two countries that retain a ten-year pre-university education system. (Source: DepEd, Discussion Paper on the Enhanced K to 12 Basic Education Program, October 5, 2010.)

[3]        DepEd, Executive Summary: K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum, undated.

[4]        Dir. Ganzon, Vetted Brief for the K to 12 Launch, April 20, 2012.

[5]        Ibid.

[6]        Ibid.

[7]        Ibid.

[8]        Ibid.

[9]        Ibid.

[10]      Secretary Armin A. Luistro, DepEd, Opening Remarks for the Formal Launch of the K to 12 Program, April 18, 2012.

[11]      The SHS Readiness Assessment determines the capacity of all educational institutions to adapt to the program and ascertain that it will be adequate for the current industry demand and employment opportunities. (Source: Dir. Ganzon, Vetted Brief for the K to 12 Launch, April 20, 2012.) The SHS Readiness Assessment shall be implemented from June to July 2012. (Source: Mr. Kenneth Tirado, Executive Assistant IV, Head of Communications Unit, DepEd, April 20, 2012.)

[12]      The K to 12 Modeling introduces SHS to selected schools to simulate the program before its nationwide implementation in SY 2016–2017. (Source: Dir. Ganzon, Vetted Brief for the K to 12 Launch, April 20, 2012.) The K to 12 Modeling shall be implemented in June 2012. (Source: Mr. Tirado, April 20, 2012.)

[13]      DepEd, Discussion Paper, October 5, 2010.

[14]      Presidential Legislative Liaison Office, Status of the LEDAC Common Legislative Agenda, as of March 21, 2012.

[15]      Dir. Ganzon, Vetted Brief for the K to 12 Launch, April 20, 2012.

[16]      The deployment and hiring of the CY 2011 teachers was in accordance with the revised flowchart prescribed by DepEd Order No. 9, s. 2011, which streamlined the process of hiring for teachers. (Source: Dir. Ganzon, Vetted Brief for the K to 12 Launch, April 20, 2012.)


33 Ways to use blogs in your classroom

33 Ways to use blogs in your classroom and in the educational setting

Drawing a blank on how you might use a blog in your own classroom? Here’s a list to jump start your creativity. By no means is this list exhaustive; there are as many ways to use blogs in education as there are to use paper. 🙂 Remember, blogs are a medium, not a genre. Some of these ideas are for the classroom in general, some are for younger students, some are for older students. Some could become group or classroom blogs, others are suited for individual student blogs. Next, determine to what degree do you want to have “conversations” with others. If you want global participation, ask “in what ways can I have students from another part of the world participate in this with us?”. Ask also,”in what ways can we get experts involved with our blogs?” The sky’s the limit! 🙂

Create a blog to communicate class/school information with parents. Post field trip information, field trip forms, parent helper calendars, general classroom guidelines and more.

Create a blog with daily lessons listed for students who are sick or gone. Each day, try to designate a classroom “scribe” who is responsible for posting lessons/materials covered.

For really young students – perhaps students just learning to write – use a blog to showcase individual art projects throughout the year. Use a digital camera and scanner to put creative endeavors up for display around each holiday.

Create a blog which provides additional, age-appropriate material on thematic units you study throughout the year. Link to supplemental videos, podcasts and websites to encourage extended learning.

Create a blog where students record narrations of their favorite stories (use the free software Audacity to create sound files). Students can read published work or their own work. Accompany it with scanned illustrations they have drawn.

Create a blog where students list class hypotheses before each class science experiment. When experiment is done, results can be posted and compared to initial hypotheses.

Create a blog where students share stories about their favorite holiday, or a blog about special holiday traditions in their family.

Create a blog which lists creative writing prompts or striking visual images. Encourage students to post after self-selecting a prompt/picture. Let this evolve so that students begin writing the prompts for other students.

Create a blog that has children reviewing children’s books.

Create a blog where every member of the class posts about a favorite vacation. Embed maps, use Google Earth or even create a “collaborative google map” where everyone “pins” their favorite vacations on one map.

Create a blog where you list various statements that are facts and others that are opinion. Students can leave comments explaining why each is either a fact or opinion.

Create a blog where students post most memorable learning moments on a recent field trip. Could also do a Know – Want to Know – Learned (KWL) activity on the blog.

Create a blog where students describe a typical day at school. Invite other same aged students from different global locations to contribute the same type of information on the same blog. Let students ask questions and leave comments to gain cultural awareness. Students can then begin to share/compare thematic units being learned, novels being read, field trips being taken, etc.

Create a professional reflection blog on lessons that you teach. Analyze strategies and techniques that work well or don’t work so well. Research and link to alternative ways to approach the lesson next time.

Create a blog that lists science fair projects chosen by each member of the class. Have students journal about their successes, frustrations and learning as projects develop. On day of competition, have students post pictures of completed projects. Let students comment on projects they thought were particularly interesting or fun. Generate “comment awards” for most complex project, most intricate project, most explosive project, etc.

Create a blog where students create a timelines (use online webware such as – perhaps for events in a novel or story, or for historical events being studied. Could also be used to predict the future!

Create a blog where students collect data on science experiments. Use blog to display information gathered from Google spreadsheets. Students can create/embed graphs and charts explaining relationships of data.

Create a blog that archives favorite recipes of each student. To practice math skills, ask students to multiply each recipe so that it would feed the entire class! Post resulting recipes in blog.

Create a blog that displays information and characteristics of various art movements. Post famous art pictures and have students comment on the prominent characteristics of each. Let students find and post examples of various movements and techniques in art they find.

Create a blog where students respond to particular relevant political cartoons. Ask students to evaluate the real meaning behind the cartoon and correlate its importance to current events.

Create a blog which simulates a presidential blog and positions of this candidate on various issues. Encourage students to leave comments and questions on the candidate’s policies or ideas.

Create a blog where each student conducts text or multimedia interviews to gain insight to family history and traditions.

Create a blog that showcases student poetry, short stories, etc.

Create a blog which links to real and bogus websites. Students can comment on noted biases and link to online sources to prove/disprove validity/reliability of site.

Create a blog where students find and report on acts of “good” in their community to counter the bombardment of negativity of daily media (thanks, Allison!).

Create a blog where students post about math concepts learned throughout the year. Blog can provide examples and solutions of math problems and concepts being studied.

Create a blog where students digitally record steps to solving various math problems (can use digital camcorder, record from digital whiteboard applications or use screencasts programs to capture procedures/steps).

Create a blog where students examine everyday items and how geometry or mathematical concepts are used in their design.

Create a blog where students must choose a social topic to educate others about. Students use a variety of multimedia to educate and persuade others to take action or become a part of the solution to the problem.

Create a blog where students pick a musical instrument they are considering playing in band. Students research the history of the instrument, link to sound files of the instrument, as well as use pictures and link to videos of how to play the instrument. Purchasing price, as well as other pros and cons can be explored.

As a librarian or library aide, use a blog to disseminate new procedures, events or happenings to staff or other district colleagues.

As a librarian, get a book club started with a blog. Any interested student can join in.

Helping with the local PTA? Why not start a blog that records minutes and upcoming events. Send the link of the blog to all parents with email addresses to get them involved and interested.